ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMAT Please use the following format for your paper. First, tell me whether it is a Research Article, Research Summary, Review of Literature, or Analytical Article. Next, give the title of the article and the author(s), and finally give the hot link. Then write your 250+ word summary of the article. Do this for each of the four different types of articles. Do not quote anything; use your own words in the summaries. Attached is a sample Paper that would receive 20 points plus 5 Bonus points if both sources and paper are turned in on time! The words in bold somehow disappeared from the first email. So, I am resending this. I will send an example of what the paper should look like also.
Student’s Name Here: _________________________
Introduction to Sociology
Title: Relationships Between Poverty and Psychopathology
Authors: E. Jane Costello, PhD; Scott N. Compton, PhD; Gordon Keeler, MS; Adrian Angold, MRCPsych
Through a natural, longitudinal experiment this data explored the role of social selection compared to social causation of childhood psychopathology by studying the effects of relief from poverty on mental health. The sample size of this experiment consisted of 1420 rural children aged nine to thirteen years old. One quarter of the sample was of American Indian decent and the rest were mostly white. Halfway through the eight-year longitudinal study, a casino opened up which annually increased the income supplement of the American Indians. This increase in income moved 14% of families out of poverty, while 53% remained poor while 32% were never poor. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the psychiatric symptoms of the never poor, persistently poor, and ex-poor children. Each child was annual prescribed psychiatric assessments for eight years. The psychiatric assessments of each category of children (never poor, persistently poor and ex-poor children) were compared for the four years before and after the casino opened. The end results showed that before the casino opened, the persistently poor and ex-poor children had higher levels of psychiatric symptoms compared to the never-poor children. Although after the casino opening, the levels of psychiatric symptoms of the ex-poor fell to those of the never-poor children, while the levels among the persistently poor remained high. The study only found this data in support of conduct and oppositional disorders, as opposed to psychiatric disorders such as anxiety or depression. The study concluded that if family poverty caused specific emotional and behavioral problems in children, then after poverty was removed these psychiatric symptoms should improve or disappear.
Title: Poverty, State Capital, and Recidivism among Women Offenders
Authors: Kristy Holtfreter, Michael Reisig, Merry Morash
This research investigates the effects of poverty and state-sponsored support on recidivism among women offenders. To gain further insight on this research a sample of 134 female felony offenders from a county in Oregon and the cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota were used to examine self-reports of rearrest and probation or parole violations over a six-month time period. After reviewing the data it was concluded that those who exhibited a poverty status portrayed an increase in the odds of rearrest by a factor of 4.6 and the odds of supervision violation by a factor of 12.7. In order to help combat this problem, it is believed that community corrections agencies should encourage their officers to advocate for poor women to receive available sources of state capital. This will help to address critical short-term needs which can only better their economic circumstances, help them escape the downfall of poverty, and ultimately reduce the likelihood of recidivism. If these state-sponsored support systems are utilized to address short term needs it will ultimately reduce the odds of recidivism by 83% while also promoting women empowerment and lowering the likelihood of women who reoffend. In order to help mend this growing problem, the early stages of supervision are crucial. It is advised that community correction organizations begin advocating for the women offenders in order for them to receive the available sources of state capital, such as subsidized housing. By focusing on these simple short-term needs, it will help move these female felonies above the poverty line, off of welfare and reduce the odds of offending the law in the future.
Title: Guest Editorial: Human Security, Social Cohesion, and Disability.
Authors: Anita Ghai
In all societies, especially developing countries, disabled citizens are stripped of equal rights and opportunities granted to those in “mainstream” society. According to the Millennium Development goals, the objective is to half those suffering from global poverty by the year 2015. In reference to the Commission on Human Security, human security is the security of survival. Those suffering from poverty in the majority of the world are still suffering for survival. Seen throughout many cultural studies, the cycle goes that you are more likely to be poor if you are disabled and more likely to be disabled if you are poor; making these citizens the most vulnerable in society. According to the United Nations, 20% of the world’s poorest people are disabled. Research indicates that nearly one-third of the total number of absolute poor individuals in the world live in India. Poverty is marked by feelings of hopelessness, which places limitations on the personal and professional opportunities an individual can achieve socially and economically within their community. Poverty is especially seen in those suffering from the disability of psychological trauma, usually due to violence, war or trauma. In Afghanistan those within society encouraged to become suicide bombers are usually individuals “incapable” of supporting and feeding their families or in other words, carry some sort of disability. In order to resolve the issues of poverty pertaining to the security in disabled people, hopefully in the future policymakers can make reduction strategies more effective through a re-identification of the modern causes of poverty and better the modern situation.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Title: Employment Among Current and Former Welfare Recipients: A Literature Review.
Authors: Susan Morris, PhD, MSW; Janaki Santhiveeram, PhD; Brian Trung Lain, PhD, LCSW
The intention of this literature review was to address several variables that aid and discourage the overall employment of current and former welfare recipients. The sample consisted of twenty-five research studies that reported findings that outlined the personal, family and employment characteristics that impact overall employment. The publishing dates of the studies utilized in this paper range from the years 1994 to 2003. The research from the studies was formatted into two tables. One table, consisting of fifteen out of the twenty-five studies, outlined the employment characteristics of current and former welfare recipients while the other table, consisting of sixteen out of the twenty-five studies, presented the factors that deter or promote employment. Some of the family and personal factors analyzed consisted of levels of education, marital status along with previous welfare history. This review found that overall welfare recipients had relatively unstable jobs, lower wages and kept jobs for shorter periods of time. The studies also outlined several factors relating to personal and employment characteristics that promoted future employment, such as a higher education level, prior work experience, fewer children and vocational skill levels while limited work experience, limited education and family responsibilities significantly influenced and depressed future employment activity. It was mutually found through the research that factors such as access to childcare, transportation and medical assistance made sustained employment difficult for welfare recipients to enter into the labor market. The studies concluded that the employment opportunities for welfare recipients are too often limited to low wage, low skilled jobs without benefits and opportunity for advancement.