Word Borrowing in English from other Languages

Word Borrowing in English from other Languages

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Word Borrowing in English from other Languages

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INTRODUCTION

` The words that English has borrowed from other languages` (Present-Day English (1650-present))

BACKGROUND AND AIM

THE THESIS OVERVIEW

THE AIMS AND METHODS OF THE EMPIRICAL STUDY

THE MATERIAL AND PROCEDURE





CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Historical and cultural backgrounds of the English Language

1.1.1 Old English

1.1.2 Middle English

1.1.3 Early modern English

1.1.4 Colonial times

1.2 The notion of borrowings

1.2.1 The definition of the term borrowing

1.2.2 The reasons for borrowing

1.2.3 The types of borrowings

1.2.4 The classification of borrowings

1.3 The influence of other languages on the English language

1.3.1 Latin

1.3.2 Celtic

1.3.3 Scandinavian

1.2.4 French



CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Present-Day English

2.1.1 Sanskrit

2.1.2 Hindi

2.1.3 Dravidian

2.1.4 Persian

2.1.5 Arabic

2.1.6 African languages

2.1.7 American Indian Languages

2.1.8 Chinese

2.1.9 Japanese

2.1.10 Pacific Islands

2.1.11 Australia



Sample below:



INTRODUCTION

‘Time changes all things; there is no reason why language should escape this universal law’ 



F. de Saussure, Course in General Linguistics (1959, p.76)



According to the above quotation, the development in the area of linguistics is the intrinsic element. It is present in the all aspects of our life and undoubtedly. Thanks to the development, we are able to communicate in more sophisticated way. Moreover, the meaning of words and wide range of vocabulary let us express our thoughts in greater detail. Moreover, the development functions involve changes in morphology, syntax and phonology.



BACKGROUND AND AIM



The thesis aims to increase our knowledge in the scope of modal verbs. We are going to observe, and analyze their development and meaning in respective period. Our aim is to expand horizons in the case of notion of modality, mood and respective modal verbs examing their development from the Old English period by get the following Old English. Modal verbs are widely used nowadays and it is certain that we will not find any new a proper equivalents for the current used modal verbs. The theoretical part consists of two chapters which are followed by the analytical one. The study is based on various sources from the respective period of time. Such variety helps in analyzing the subject through the prism of different opinions which depend on respective beliefs assigned to every period of time.



THE THESIS OVERVIEW 



The thesis explores the category of modality in English with the emphasis on its development. Firstly, in the first chapter, we will discuss the notion of modality with three main modal categories: deontic, dynamic and epistemic, next we will direct our attention to notions of realis and irrealis. General information and classification of modal verbs from the period of Present-Day English is the main concern of the chapter. The second chapter is devoted to the history and development of modal verbs. In the subsection of Old English, we are going discuss irregular verbs, pre-modals and furthermore, we will discuss the Old English modality and adverbs combined with possibility. The Middle English subsection consists of modal auxiliaries, epistemic and deontic modal verbs, the common use of modal verbs, perfective aspect, negation and combination of adverbs and modal verbs. The Early Modern English shows the continuity from Middle English, contracted modals and the notion of clitics, the comparison between present and past form and the eventual changes and meaning in the area of modal auxiliaries. Chapter 3 constitutes the analytical part. The respective period is studied through the prism of examples from different sources, popular in those times. Every group of examples indicate change, particular structure followed by the usage of a particular modal verb. 



THE AIMS AND METHODS OF THE EMPIRICAL STUDY



To point out and emphasize the changes in each period, we will use examples from different sources, well-known for average person. The content of selected sentences is not so important, grammatical structures, meaning in sentences, combination with pronouns and changes in the area of morphology are the main issues in our commentary. We are going to analyse the creation of affirmative sentences, question, negation, combination of modal verbs with personal pronoun thou. Methods are based on skimming and scanning of the selected materials in order to find appropriate examples. Next, we will group them in organized sequences, sections and provide additional discussion and comments.



MATERIAL AND PROCEDURE



The material consists of a compiled corpus of literary works and plays available online. The material proved adequate for the purpose of the thesis. The procedure of studying the respective examples is based on scanning and skimming. After selecting the adequate number of examples, we divided them into groups and subgroups, to keep clarity and orderliness. Each group of example is followed by a detailed discussion.

CONTENT:

Word Borrowing in English from other Languages Name Institution The Words that English has Borrowed from Other Languages Introduction The English language, as spoken today, is a product of many years of borrowing and influences from other languages. For instance, the invasion of Britain in 5th century AD by the Saxons, the Jutes and the Angles, introduced a mixture of Germanic languages from which much of today’s English is derived. At the time of the invasion, Celtic was the dominant language spoken by the inhabitants of modern day England. The term England itself, in fact, was introduced by the Angles, who pronounced it as “Englaland,” and whose language was “Englisc” (Mastin, 2011). It is estimated that nearly ha

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