Central Question for the Essay – Transition to Democracy: “The End of History?” In the summer of 1989, the American magazine the National Interest published an essay entitled “The End of History?”. Its author, political scientist, Francis Fukuyama (1989, 271), argued that the world was witnessing “the end of history”: “that is, the end point of mankind’s ideological evolution and the universalization of western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.” Does this “end of history” thesis* hold up over 25 years on? Why or why not? *The basic point of Fukuyama’s thesis is that liberal democracy is/will be the final form of political system or government. Short Essay Your assignment is to write 1 page essay outline and 6 page, double spaced, short essay response to the above question. In answering the central question, it may help you to consider the following sub‐questions: Is liberal democracy or democratization succeeding? Are authoritarian and totalitarian systems dying? Or, have there been important victories for alternatives to democracy and/or other democratic setbacks and especially over the past decade? What challenges are involved during transitions to democracy? What factors favour and/or impede democratization? 1. 1.Clearly state your answer to the above question in an argument (1‐2 sentence(s) thesis with premises) in the introduction of the essay. [2 marks] 2. 2.Adequately define/describe any core concepts and ideologies/theoretical perspectives that are central to your main argument.[6 marks] 3. 3.Support the argument (thesis) in the body of the essay with at least three (3) main reasons (premises). Back up the reasons (premises) with specific examples from the required course readings* and other independent research for this assignment. [15 marks] 4. .Clearly re‐state (paraphrase) your argument in the conclusion of the essay (1‐2 sentence(s)thesis) and recap the premises. [2 marks] [Total: 25 marks] [Marks will be deducted from the total if organization and grammar are poor] * The required and recommended course readings are: Fukuyama, F. and Fisk, M. (2004). Democracy, the Limits of Liberal. In J. Krieger (Ed.), The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World. (2nd ed.) (pp. 1‐10). Oxford University Press. (Week Nine) Dickerson. M. O. et al. (2013). Chapter 19: Autocratic systems of government. In An introduction to government and politics: a conceptual approach (pp. 258‐273). Toronto: Nelson Canada. (Week Nine) Arendt, H. (1994). Mankind and Terror. Essays in Understanding: 1930‐1954 (pp. 297‐306). New York: Schocken Books. (Week Nine). Freedom House. (2016). Freedom in the World: Anxious Dictators, Wavering Democracies: Global Freedom Under Pressure. Retrieved from https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom‐world/freedom‐ world‐2016. (Week Three) Fukuyama, Francis. (1989). The End of History? National Interest. Summer (6), 3‐18. [The citation for the complete book is Fukuyama, F. (1992). The End of History and the Last Man. New York, NY: Free Press.] (Week Nine) ‐‐‐. (2015). Why Is Democracy Performing So Poorly? Journal of Democracy. 26(1), 11‐20. (Week Nine) Mueller, John. (2014). Did History End? Assessing the Fukuyama Thesis. Political Science Quarterly. 129(1), 35‐54. (Week Nine) Haerpfer, Christian W. Patrick Bernhagen, Ronald F. Inglehart and Christian Welzel. (2009). Long Waves and Conjunctures of Democratization. In Democratization (pp.41 ‐54). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ‐‐‐. Theories of Democratization. In Democratization (pp.74 – 91). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. The above readings are all available. Attached. You must use in text citations as well as a list of references according to the APA citation style. Consider also the following questions in researching and writing the short essay: Is the introduction of the paper brief and clear? Is there a central question asked in the paper? What is your answer to this question (in the form of an argument or thesis)? Is there a clear thesis statement in the introduction setting out your argument and the reasons or premises why you are taking that position? Does the title of the paper reflect the central question or argument? Is there a title page? Does the organization of the paper follow from the introduction and thesis statement? Is the paper properly organized using subtitles and sections that correspond with the argument and premises? Are the premises made to support the argument in the body of the paper clear and convincing (and presented in a logical sequence)? Are concepts and ideologies/theoretical perspectives well‐ defined/described and is ample evidence/examples used to defend the argument? Is the argument informed by the chosen required course readings and additional independent research and eclectic sources? For example, are references cited from appropriate primary and secondary sources, such as debate transcripts and policy documents from governmental, non‐governmental or international organizations (primary sources) and scholarly books and journal articles and sources from the popular press (secondary sources)? Is there a brief and clear conclusion and does it adequately summarize the argument and premises made in the body of the paper? Is the essay typed or word processed? 6 double‐spaced pages in length (no more!) (plus list of references)? Stapled? Is the essay free of minor and major spelling, stylistic and grammatical errors and typos? Are all sources properly documented consistently throughout the essay? For example, is the APA citation style used to mark the exact places in the essay where source material has been used? Is there a list of references at the end of the essay?