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Abstract:

The hydraulic phenomenon, hydraulic jump, is explored through an open flow water channel. It usually happens when a sudden rise in depth of flow occur due to fluid flowing at a high velocity discharges into a lower velocity region causing considerable energy dissipation. The hydraulic jump is divided into 3 regions known as the supercritical, critical, and subcritical where every region has its own behavior. At the supercritical region, the flow is running at high velocity below the critical depth; where at subcritical region, the flow is running at low velocity above the critical region. The critical region is where the depth of the fluid is unstable where it occurs within the jump. The main purpose of the hydraulic jump is to disperse excess energy of flowing water downstream of a hydraulic structure, such as channel, sluice gate, etc. The calculations obtained in this experiment were obtained from the Bernoulli and continuity equation where the results were then compared with the theoretical equation. Hydraulic jumps are usually found in rivers, streams, oceans, and also in kitchen sinks, while they’re usually studies for their presence in nature. The hydraulic jump phenomena and what impact the depth of a fluid has upon it will be studied and presented through this experiment.

Introduction:

The aim of this experiment is to explore and study the phenomena of the hydraulic jump and to learn how to determine flow measurements by operating simple laboratory apparatus.

The main objectives of this experiment:

Principles:

In this experiment, a miniature apparatus of the hydraulic jump is used to help demonstrate the conditions of a real life open- channel flow jump. A flume was used to replicate the nature and conditions of the hydraulic jump. The flow of water was then regulated in the upper end of the flume by a sluice gate to form a shallow and rapid supercritical flow, while at the lower end of the flume, a barrier was formed by another sluice gate which created a subcritical flow just before the sluice. This transition between the supercritical and subcritical flow is what generated the hydraulic jump. A hydraulic jump happens due to the movement of a fluid flowing at a very high velocity to a very low velocity flow zone where the fluid will increase in height creating turbulence. What happened here is that some of the initial kinetic energy of the flow was converted into potential energy while the rest of the energy is dissipated as heat. As for analysis of the flow and the calculations of the mean velocity and energies, the Bernoulli and Continuity equations were used.

The behavior of hydraulic jumps and their properties will be investigated through manual experimentation, theoretical calculations, and further reading on the given subject. Analysis on how a wavering head of water before a sluice gate affects the depth upstream of the flow, the association of the Froude number, and its impact on the depth and energy losses across the jump will be undertaken. Comparisons were then be made between the theoretical and experimental values to confirm the equations used and the investigation itself, with the results being presented in both a graphical and tabular format. Conclusions will then be discussed regarding various limitations and assumptions, which may have affected the accuracy of the results, while it will be noticed that the validity of the equations was not compromised.

Experimental Work:

The apparatus used in this experiment consisted of a flume with a sluice gate outlet. The flume gate must first be checked to be horizontal and the tailgate is lowered. The water pump is then turned on and the water depth upstream of the sluice gate is regulated by the flow valve to about 240mm. A hydraulic jump is then produced by lowering the tailgate where the edge of the jump is about 10 cm downstream of the sluice gate. Then, the depth of the water upstream of the sluice gate is stabilized to about 240mm by turning the valve. The pointer gauges are then used to measure the depths at y_{0}, y_{1}, and y_{2}. The procedure is then repeated to obtain data of different depths.

Procedure:

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