RESEARCH PAPER DUE: AUGUST 3 BY MIDNIGHT LENGTH: 10 pp. double-spaced, plus list of cited sources PLAGIARISM PREVENTION. TURNITIN will be available to you on the course D2L site to self-assess your paper for originality. The instructor will also use this program to assess compliance with the plagiarism policy as stated on the course syllabus. Please review the pertinent sections of the syllabus. CITATION FORMAT: Use one of the major formats in a consistent manner. RECALL: OTHER EXCERPTS FROM THE SYLLABUS AND ONE-ON-ONE DISCUSSION In format, the research paper will at least ten pages. It should contain at least ten literature citations, no more than two of which may be http:// sites. Citations to the peer-reviewed literature, such as those accessible through the PubMed website, are strongly preferred… The instructor is committed to working with each student to make this an assignment that is helpful to the student`s career or serves the student`s interest in some other way… SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS Bibliographic Databases www.pubmed.gov Skilled execution of Pubmed search strategies and the retrieval of fulltext, peer-reviewed journal articles are essential skills emphasized in ENVH 3040 Environment Complete Online via Sherrod Library “Research Tools -> Find articles, search databases National Academy Press www.nap.edu U.S. Government Printing Office www.fdsys.gov An “Advanced Search” limited to the “Collection” of “Congressional Hearings” will greatly benefit students whose final term papers address policy-related issues Journals (This is a partial list of high quality journals) American Journal of Public Health (Washington, D.C.: APHA) Online via Sherrod Library catalogue Environmental Health Perspectives (Research Triangle Park, NC: NIEHS) www.ehponline.org Environmental Research (Orlando, FL: Academic Press) Online via Sherrod Library catalogue Environmental Science and Technology (Washington, D.C.: ACS) Online via Sherrod Library catalogue Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (Atlanta, GA: CDC) www.cdc.gov/mmwr Risk Analysis (Malden, MA: Blackwell) Online via Sherrod Library catalogue Sherrod Library Books (This is a partial list) Hilgenkamp, Kathryn , Environmental health : ecological perspectives, (Sudbury, Mass. : Jones and Bartlett) 2006 RA565 .H52 2006 Koren, Herman, Handbook of Environmental Health, 4th ed. (Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 2003) REFERENCE RA565 .K67 2003 Levenstein, Charles, At the Point of Production: The Social Analysis of Occupational and Environmental Health (Amityville, NY: Baywood, 2009) T59.77 .A85 2009 Morgan, Monroe T., Environmental Health, 2nd ed. (Englewood, CO: Morton, 1997) RA566 .M67 1997 ------------------------------------------------------------------- ** sources I found that needs to be used** ems 1 - 9 of 9 (Display the 9 citations in PubMed) 1. Fertil Steril. 2008 Feb;89(2 Suppl):e111-6; discussion e117. Environmental contaminants and pregnancy outcomes. Windham G, Fenster L. Source Division of Environmental and Occupational Disease Control, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California 94804, USA. email@example.com Abstract OBJECTIVE: To review selected environmental, occupational, and other important risk factors for the following adverse pregnancy outcomes: low birth weight (LBW), intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and preterm delivery (PTD). DESIGN: The evidence is explored in greater detail for environmental tobacco smoke, drinking water disinfection byproducts, and organochlorine (DDT) and organophosphate pesticides, partly using a weight of evidence approach. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Low birth weight and IUGR are surrogate measures of fetal growth that are determined at delivery. Low birth weight is defined as0.95) and less so with total HAAs (r = 0.74 in Nova Scotia and r = 0.52 in Ontario). The correlation between total THMs and bromodichloromethane was high in Nova Scotia (r = 0.63), but low in Ontario (r = 0.26). The correlation was between THM level in individual household samples, and the mean THM level during the same time period from several distribution system samples was 0.63, while a higher correlation in THM level was observed for samples taken at the same location 1 year apart (r = 0.87). A correlation of 0.73 was found between household THM level and a total exposure measure incorporating ingestion, showering, and bathing behaviors. These results point to the importance of: measurement of different classes of byproducts; household rather than distribution system sampling; and, incorporation of subject behaviors in exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies of disinfection byproducts and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Free Article PMID: 15026776 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related citations Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for tnetsuslib 3. Epidemiology. 2002 Sep;13(5):540-4. Assessing the exposure of pregnant women to drinking water disinfection byproducts. Barbone F, Valent F, Brussi V, Tomasella L, Triassi M, Di Lieto A, Scognamiglio G, Righi E, Fantuzzi G, Casolari L, Aggazzotti G. Source Istituto di Igiene ed Epidemiologia, DPMSC, Università di Udine, Italy. Abstract BACKGROUND: To evaluate associations between exposure to disinfection byproducts in drinking water and adverse birth outcomes, personal exposure to disinfection byproducts must take into consideration multiple routes of exposure. METHODS: We assessed the reproducibility and validity of a questionnaire measuring water consumption, showering and bathing habits, use of chlorine-based products, and swimming pool attendance in 237 pregnant Italian women enrolled between June and December 1999. The questionnaire was completed during the last trimester of pregnancy (preQ) and again a few days after delivery (postQ). Data from postQ were compared with a 7-day diary completed during the last trimester. RESULTS: According to postQ, total water intake was 2.6 liters per day, whereas tap water intake was 0.6 liters per day. Intraclass correlation coefficients of postQ compared with preQ were 0.85 for tap water daily intake and 0.77 for duration of showering and bathing. Pearson`s correlation coefficients were 0.84 for tap water daily intake, 0.81 for frequency of showering, and 0.94 for bathing. The kappa statistics were 0.76 (95% confidence limits = 0.68, 0.85) for use of domestic chlorine-based products and 0.82 (0.70, 0.94) for indoor swimming. Pearson`s coefficients for postQ compared with the diary were 0.78 for tap water daily intake, 0.62 for frequency of showering, and 0.64 for bathing. Compared with the diary, the sensitivity and specificity of postQ in assessing indoor swimming were 75% and 90%, respectively.
The effects of drinking water on pregnancyCustomer Inserts His/Her NameCustomer Inserts Grade CourseCustomer Inserts Tutor`s NameWriter Inserts Date Here (Day, Month, Year)AbstractA number of researches have been conducted in order to address the subject of water contaminants and the role played by them in detrimental consequences of pregnancy due to the growing public interest in this matter. Water is a significant element of pregnancy which lessens the side effects of pregnancy, helps prepare the body for physiological transformations and has a positive impact on the health of the pregnant lady and the infant. However, maternal exposure to infected water can have severe consequences. This study seeks to establish a relationship between the contaminated drinking water with chlorine disinfectants, their byproducts, arsenic, lead and other impurities and the adverse birth outcomes which include small for gestational age (SGA) or low birth weight, premature birth, birth defects, involuntary abortions, and prenatal fatality. Earlier researches performed on animals proposed that some of these contaminants are teratogenic. A qualitative review was performed as diverse literature is available on this topic and researchers have classified and investigated the birth consequences and risk factors both.The effects of drinking water on pregnancyIntroductionWith time, people have shown concern regarding the role of drinking water as a possible risk factor during pregnancy. Although researches on animals signified some of the pollutants to be teratogenic, still many queries are left unanswered by the present researches on this topic (Hunter ES et al., 1996, pg 57â€“64). The aim of this research paper is to review the available literature and identify the link between pregnancy complications and polluted drinking water. What facilitates the researches in United States of America is the maintenance of proper records of tap water samples in most of the states. According to the federal and state drinking water policies, these samples are tested by water utilities. Furthermore, information on gestational age, birth weight, other characteristics of the birth, and parental risk factors can be found in the individuals databases established in every state. More information can be gathered from prenatal (less than 20 week`s gestation) death certificates. All of this data can be helpful in the desired evaluation. However, it can be insufficient in terms of data related to birth defects (Watkins et al, 1996, pg 731-734).The study will consider the contaminations such as chlorine disinfectants, their byproducts, arsenic, lead and other impurities that cause the adverse birth outcomes like small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight, premature birth, birth defects, involuntary abortions, and prenatal fatality.Importance of drinking water during pregnancyWater is an essential requirement of our body, particularly during pregnancy. The physical needs and the physi...