Measure and record the turbine diameter D and take

Measure and record the turbine diameter D and take the load to be R=47 ohm

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Object              To determine the optimum Tip Speed Ratio for the model tidal turbine.

Theory             The speed of the blade tip is given by the circumference of the blade tip circle (pD) divided by the time      taken for the blade to rotate once (60/RPM). Thus


The turbine efficiency depends on the Tip Speed Ratio (Andrews and Jelley, 2013. Yaakob et al., 2013). The Tip Speed Ratio is the ratio of the speed of the blade tip to the flow speed:

l =

In the experiments, we measure the output voltage, V, for a load, R and the output power is given by


The power coefficient Cp is defined as the ratio of the output power from the generator, PO, to the input power from the flow, PI = ½ r A U3. Substituting A = D2 we have the Power Coefficient as:




Where   vtip         is the speed of the blade tip (m/s) turning at RPM Revolutions Per Minute

                  D          is the diameter of the turbine (m)

                   l          is the Tip Speed Ratio

                  U          is the flow speed (m/s)

                  V          is the output voltage (V) against load resistance (R) ohms

                  PO        is the output power from the generator (W)

                  PI         is the input power from the wind (W)

                  Cp         is the power coefficient or efficiency of the device

                  r          is the density of water, taken as 1,000 kg


  1. Measure and record the turbine diameter D and take the load to be R=47 ohm
  2. Set the computer flow control to 24.
  3. Measure and record the blade revolution RPM both by eye and with the frequency meter.
  4. Measure and record the output voltage in V.
  5. Measure and record the flow speed in m/s.
  6. Repeat the measurements with all of the flow settings.



  1. Use the equations above to complete the results tables and calculate the Tip Speed Ratio and the power coefficient



  1. Plot the Tip Speed Ratio, l (on the x-axis) against the power coefficient (on the y-axis) with all of the data on the same graph
  2. Comment on your results and, in particular, on the validity of the Yaakob et al., 2013 graph (above).
  3. Discuss your results in the context of the operation of a tidal stream power generator.



Turbine Diameter D                m                 





By eye


By meter



Voltage   (V)








































































































































































750 word reports should follow the OTMRAC structure:


Object     10    Broadly introduce the topic and derive the objective


Theory    10    A referenced derivation of the appropriate               theoretical equation(s)


Method    10    Describe the experimental procedure or data           gathering exercises using the past tense.                Examples of calculations etc. The test of the methodology is that it should be written in a manner so that your work could be replicated by another and produce the same results.


Results   10    List and plot the data as they were measured but do not undertake any secondary calculations


Analysis  20    Calculate, tabulate, plot and describe any derived            parameters and test the theory


D&C         40    Draw appropriate conclusions making reference              back to the objective(s) and to the theory being           tested. Is the theory supported, if not, why not?               Discuss the errors.




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