Describe the steps you will take to establish a surveillance system for communicable diseases and what major diseases you will include in the surveillance system and why?
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The country has a weak health information system that captures monthly data from public health facilities. Primary healthcare services are being provided by community health care workers. There is no daily or weekly reporting system. You are requested by the health cluster coordinator to establish a surveillance system for the control of communicable diseases.
Question 1: Describe the steps you will take to establish a surveillance system for communicable diseases and what major diseases you will include in the surveillance system and why?
You have established a surveillance system that captures weekly mortality and morbidity reports from the 21 healthcare centres established within relief camps. These weekly reports from the camp health facilities will help you to monitor the disease trends for major communicable diseases. You were also provided with previous monthly reports from public health facilities for last one year. Review of those reports shows the presence of malaria, diarrhoea, acute Respiratory Infections and skin diseases in the affected population. You have noticed a significant increase in number of Malaria cases in 6 relief camps. Stagnant water in the surrounding the camps areas may cause major outbreaks of malaria, dengue and other water-borne diseases.
Question 2: How preventive measure you will take to control the spread of malaria?
The United Nations is worried about water-borne diseases. Weekly reports show 378 cases of acute watery diarrhoea with a mortality of 4%. Availability of safe drinking water has become an issue in the relief camps. Open defecation is also common practice in some flood-affected rural areas. It has also been noticed that due to flooding, animal and human faeces have contaminated the drinking water sources.
Question 3: What will you do to reduce the spread of water-borne diseases in the camp population?
You have received an alert from one of the relief camp health facility about a disease having symptoms of bleeding from gums.
Question 4: How will you respond to this alert? Describe the steps including prevention and control activates.
A large portion of crops has been damaged by the floods. The economic profile of the area where you are working is already on the lower side. World Food Program (WFP) has warned the government about the possibility of nutritional crises in coming months. The government has requested partner organisations to respond to nutritional needs of the displaced population especially children under 5years of age. You have been approached by WFP representative and offered to establish a warehouse for nutritional supplies and necessary logistics for the surveillance of malnourished children. There are enough supplies to cover population in all relief camps.
Question 5: What screening methods you may use to identify malnourished children?. You may consider both community-based surveillance and screening at health facilities.
Almost one year have passed following floods. The government is working with the help of partner organisations to rehabilitate displaced population and decided to close relief camps. Most of the health facilities around your camps are now functioning. Healthcare providers are not aware of diseases and medical condition under surveillance. You are requested to make a plan for shifting weekly surveillance system from camps health facilities to routine public health facilities.
Question 6: Write should be main components of your plan?