China as an Asian Strategic Power
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Xi Jinping introduced the concept of a “new type of great-power relations” in order to promote a healthy relationship between the two countries. The Chinese president, Xi Jinping and the US president, Barack Obama had their historic meeting at the Sunnylands Estate in California in order to assess the United States and China relationship. The aim of the meeting was to create a new model of cooperation between the countries in order to avoid unhealthy conflict or competition that was produced historically due to the rise of the new power. It is noticed that Xi Jinping defined three main points related to the statement of “New Type of Great Power Relations”. The first of the three aspects was no confrontation or conflict with the help of emphasis on dialogue and treating each other’s strategic intentions. The second is a mutual respect that comprises of core interests as well as the major concern of each of the country and the third is mutually beneficial cooperation through avoidance of zero-sum game mentality as well as advancing areas of mutual interest (Johnston, 2013; Broomfield, 2003).
The former president of the China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, Cui Liu highlighted the fact that the meeting was envisioned to address the unavoidable conflict that was present between the rising powers. Cui stated that the phrase of Jinping turned out to be an opportunity in order to explore the mechanism so that conflicts between the United States and China can be prevented. Moreover, it was also regarded as the basic operational definition that has the perspective to progress into the most definite measure of the US and China collaboration. While on the other hand, Carnegie-Tsinghua stated that giving intensive focus on the definition of the statement might undermine the attention from the long-term objective of achieving combined evolution on the concerns that are shared in order to demonstrate a new type of working relationship between China and the US (Lampton, 2013; Yaqing, 2010).
The major implication of the statement was that Haenle elaborated the fact that some of the US officials and experts are concerned that the concept hastily would put China on the equal footing with the US. This would force Washington to respect the essential interests and range of influence of China. Moreover, this would also enforce Washington to accommodate China in own terms due to which the United States is reluctant to agree on the statement. It is noticed that Obama did not reject that China’s “new type of major country relations” but the president made use of diverse language for describing the impression. Moreover, the United States accepted the statement but they highlighted the fact that there should not be an immediate expectation of the change (Overholt, 2012; Hughes, 2006).
In addition to this, the president also stated that the difference between Washington and Beijing on significant issues must be addressed but none of the sides should presume from the other power to modify their philosophies on the long-standing extents of disagreement such as Taiwan, trade, territorial disputes or others. Expectations in these circumstances would ultimately set the exertion for improved relationship between the US and China up for failure. This depicts the fact that although the prospect that China can achieve it is positive but there are certain circumstances that must be focused in order to promote the healthy and uncompetitive relationship between the two countries (Broomfield, 2003; Xie & Page, 2013).
Realist theories on the rise of China are grounded on the supposition that the international system is revolutionary. In the world politics, the sovereign states serve as the central actors and rational agents and no central authority is there that governs the behaviour of states. However, the behaviour of the states is structured by the international system. A compelling explanation has been provided by the realism for the China threat. They emphasise on the shift of power relations present within the international system. The theory states the fact as the power of the states takes to rise, the international system of the state would change through policies, territorial, and economic expansion (Medeiros, 2005; Broomfield, 2003). Based on these aspects, the realists state that China is dissatisfied with the current international structure as well as the power relation. However, many of the realists have stated the fact that the final goal of China is to attain global hegemony. While on the other hand, some of the realists present pessimistic consequences of a stronger China within international society. The focus of the regional strategy of China is to challenge the position of America within East Asia. They are from the perspective that the rise of China would a zero-sum game between the two nations that is the United States and China (Callahan, 2006).
China is considered as one of the most powerful economies of the world that encourage numerous firms to operate from their country by providing all sorts of assistance in terms of economic support that entails lessening tariff and excise duty. Moreover, China is a regional force with exceptionally constrained worldwide interest, a huge segment of China`s strategic moves concentrate on the area in which China is located “Asia” (Johnson, 2014). In addition, China`s regional strategy is, to a large degree, the centre of its stupendous system, and both the thoughts and practices of its territorial procedure reflect the objectives of its grand approach (Christensen, 2006). It is noted that Asia is the main region in which all elements (security, financial, and political) of China`s national interest reside. Therefore, China seeks the goals of its regional approach in a way that cannot be effectively connected to some other area for instance Africa and Europe: a coordinated approach seeking after security, monetary, and political interest at the same time (Gill & Huang, 2006).
However, China understands that Asia is an area with the world`s most elevated convergence of real power connection; as a country in this region. The core objective of China`s regional security technique is to keep up no less than a workable association with all the significant forces in the region (U.S, Russia, Japan, India) so China will never get to be separated and encircled by great powers again (Gill & Huang, 2006). Furthermore, China sees the region as a shield from weight applied by other great forces, the second security objective of China`s territorial technique is to keep up, at whatever point conceivable, a cordial association with regional states to keep a hard containment coalition (enclosure) drove by any combination of the external great powers (Medeiros, 2005).
It is found that in terms of economically China comprehends that it is already a regional economic power, and its weight will keep on developing if its economy proceeds with its development. Furthermore, the challenging confronting China is the way to make China`s financial development not a risk but rather an opportunity for the region, so that local states will not mix to ruin China`s monetary development (Christensen, 2006). Additionally, with the predominant discernments, that FDI in the past going to ASEAN nations is presently being sucked into China and China is getting a competitive advantage over ASEAN nations in numerous segments. China needs to mitigate ASEAN (and other territorial) nations` apprehension of financial difficulties from China so that fear won`t create a more bland apprehension of China (Liu & Ren, 2014).
Progressively, considering the neo radicalism`s centre conviction, which has economic interdependence makes normal premium and diminishes the possibility of conflict. China has chosen that the best system is to in the long run make China a train for territorial development by serving as a business opportunity for provincial states (it is as of now so) and a provider of technology and investment this might take around five to ten years to develop substantially (Nathan & Scobell, 2012).
It is observed that politically, China comprehends that it will just have restricted worldwide impact for a long time to come, and the principle role for China to apply its political impact on the region in a positive way. Perceiving that it cannot hope to have a worldwide voice in the event that it cannot be a provincial political strong, China`s local procedure tries to set up the nation as "key" for territorial issues. Following political impact must be viable when different states regard their views as well as their assessment, China reasons that the most ideal route for territorial political impact is through developing a picture of "a dependable (regional) great force (Yaqing, 2010).
With the help of great power relations of China, it encourages them to enhance their economic activities to the greatest level in order to compete with other rising economies of the world. Moreover, these days it is imperative from the prospect of every country to formulate, effective policies and approaches through which they can make a friendly and constructive relationship with them. For that reason, Xi Jinping is quite keen to alter their foreign policy and other strategies in order to build a good relationship with the countries particularly with the US in order to boost their economic operations to the utmost level. It is noted that most of the countries appreciated the step of Xi Jinping towards the economic relationship with the US for the reason that it would definitely encourage them to improve their economic stability to some extent. Moreover, due to the increasing competition, it is quite difficult for countries to enhance their economic stability that is why the step of Xi Jinping is appreciated by the economic experts of China and other countries (Ross & Feng, 2008).
It is found that Xi and his team comprehend that in this period of globalisation, accomplishing the Chinese dream will rely on upon a solid and stable U.S - China relationship. On the other hand, the Obama team believes that a steady, agreeable, and valuable association with China is crucial to accomplishing America`s residential and outside arrangement targets. Moreover, the two economies, financial frameworks, and exchange are progressively associated and their hobbies and predeterminations are profoundly interconnected, lending their pioneer`s solid impetuses to keep away from the encounter and undesirable rivalry. Regardless of these authenticities, history demonstrates that in eleven of fifteen cases in which a rising force tested at the present state of affairs force, destabilising strife came about. China`s sensational ascent in monetary force and universal clout has given Beijing and Washington the test of how to oversee relations between a rising force and a present state of affairs force, in the midst of expanding bilateral reliance, strategic distrust, and tension. In addition, the chance to helpfully stand up to this test and build up a technique to keep this trap between the US and China went to the fore in 2013 with the presentation of new administration groups in both capitals (Xie & Page, 2013).
President`s Xi and Obama settled on a shrewd and noteworthy choice to meet for a no neck-tie summit at the Sunny grounds Estate in Rancho Mirage, California in June, which gave a valuable and fundamental opportunities for both presidents to talk sincerely and straightforwardly with one another. It begins building up the trust that can give the establishment to a continuing and helpful U.S - China relationship. The casual setting of the meeting offered a chance for the two leaders to start building compatibility, setting a tone for enhanced relations, and picking up a superior comprehension of one another`s household, reciprocal, and global dreams (Xintian, 2005).
However, a few elements are available in the relationship in the middle of China and the United States that were less conspicuous in the relationship between the leading forces of the past. For instance, these two countries are progressively interconnected and related in terms of trade, financially and economically. This gives them a motivation to determine debate without the resort to a meeting or military power. Undoubtedly, military clash would debilitate the extremely between connections on which the thriving and security of both nations depend. Furthermore, as China`s economy has developed and turned out to be more incorporated into the world economy and money related framework, it has turned out to be more responsive to more receptive to freer trade, more open investment, more noteworthy insurance of protected intellectual rights, and cash more receptive to market strengths. This advancement has improved the probability of more prominent participation between the two nations (Broomfield, 2003).
The rise of China as the international actor is among the defining features of the 21st century. The international profile of China has been elevated through scientific and technological developments, comprehensive military modernisation programs, and sustained economic development. Moreover, it also noticed that China is assuming new responsibilities and role in global and Southern Asia context. The main objective behind the military modernisation of China was to achieve political edge so that particular disputes are resolved in their errand. It also increased the emphasis on China on the contingencies of Taiwan regardless of improved cross-strait relation. Apart from this, China was also focusing on modernising its strategic weapons with the help of attainment of anti-ship ballistic weapons. For this purpose, they created long-range missile as well as hypersonic cruise missile along with the improvement in the capabilities of nuclear warheads. In addition to this, China has also been creating complex and new platforms of military that would serve as the great value in order to combine operations conflict (Fravel, 2008).
This goal of China to make use of space for the military strategic purpose has given rise to different concerns within India. China conducted an anti-satellite test in 2007, which demonstrated its intent to create a strategic superiority in space. This had pressured India to establish a proactive space policy that has the ability to handle the challenges originating from the spacefaring countries such as China. Based on this, it is evaluated that the reaction of India towards the rising status of China was passive due to the fact that their strategic defence technologies have been overshadowed because of the investment of China in the research and development. Moreover, the main goal of the India is the containment of the mounting range of inspiration of China. This depicts the fact that India took the rising status of China as the challenging factor and focused on the development of the policies and strategies that would support their functioning. Focusing on the regional level it is observed that India has significant concerns with the rise of the Chinese economy (Goldstein, 2007).
The rise of China has been very rapid for the American and Indian strategist because they did not expect that such dramatic or sudden change would take place in the Chinese economy. It is noticed that many of the countries in the Asia-Pacific region are worried about the rising status of China due to the fact that it is changing at the faster rate than expected. Many of the economies in the Asia Pacific have argued on the fact that India should pursue to stabilise the region this is because the United States is the first country to recognise the role of India. This happened in the region of Bush when he strapped India to become the major player in the region. The major reason behind this was that India was dependent on the United States as it has some significant conflicting interest with China. Therefore, the United States and India were the major countries that were worried about the rising status of China (Hughes, 2006).
Apart from India, Japan is another country that has been worrying increasingly about the rising status of China. The major point that was of concern for Japan was the rapid modernisation of China in their nuclear capabilities. The rapid naval build-up coupled with the assertive naval activities by the China was the major worrying point for Chinese. No increase was made by the Japanese economy in their defense budget due to which they were worried about the rising status of China. Moreover, another reason that Japan was worried was that this rising status might improve the relationship between the United States and China due to which the economy of japan would suffer a lot. Although Japan was worried about this aspect, the United States was also worried about the rising status of China. This is because they might suffer from significant challenges if the relationship between the two countries proves to be successful (Qingguo, 2005).
In addition to his, the one country that was very much worried about the rising status of China was the United States. It was noticed that the China is focusing on taking the position of the superpower that is the United States. China wants to make their economic condition as powerful as of the US, which is the worrying status for the country. Therefore, United States is among the leading countries that were worried about the rising status of the China. They did not want any of the nations to take their position in the world and the China was making every possible effort of doing this. They even emphasised on making a healthy and uncompetitive relationship with the United States. Hence, being the superpower, the US was the main country among all others that was worried about the rising status of the China (Johnson, 2014).
According to western countries that great power rise and fall on the premise of their national power. In spite of the fact that this approach is going under evaluation, in the West and even in China it summons a wide market in spite of the reality it is based generally in light of the historical backdrop of Western incredible force relations preceding the twentieth century. Moreover, presently they are a part of the new age, which requires another mode to attain their set goals and objectives viably. In addition, China`s tranquil ascent in world history is on another way and of another scale, which desperately requires theoretical re-examination. However, China has in mind a pathway that permits its ascent to go ahead free, recommending purposes behind US acknowledgment, dissimilar to past set up forces, and China`s consolation, in a way that persuades the United States that situations warrant this reaction (Johnson, 2014).
The expert of other countries found four core reasons that are the premise for supporting the great power relations. To start with, the main great powers have atomic weapons or secured by an atomic umbrella. Second, taking ideological cognisance as the establishment, there is no more a plausibility of building two coalitions like those amid the Cold War. The third reason is that as economic globalisation is constantly extending, every nation`s benefit are even more firmly bound together, as determining worldwide issues gains legitimacy. Fourth, the great power has relations of close financial participation, and a high level of common interdependence causes great power relations to float in the uncertain zone between coalition and equilibrium (Christensen, 2006).
The vision of China related to its own future status interacts strongly with its commencement of the Asian command because the country is focusing on improving its relationship with the United States. This means that if China becomes successful in this aspect, then they would become strong in all aspects. Moreover, the country would also be able to provide finance and assistance to other Asian countries of the world in their economic development. In addition to this, with the help of this relationship, China would lead the commencement of the Asian command in the manner that they would resource to help other countries of the Asia. This would make these countries liable to take the assistance of the China within their important decisions (Kang, 2007).
It is concluded that China serves as a strategic Asian power because they are making efforts to improve their position in the international market. Moreover, it is noticed that Xi Jinping introduced the statement of new kind of great power relations with the intention to improve their relationship with the United States. This is important for China in order to attain their strategic power within the Asia. Although, the United States was not willing to accept this statement but they did accept it but highlighted some conditions for the China to ensure that their power over the world is not affected by this relationship. Therefore, China achieved the great power and has the rising status, which has worried different countries all over the world.
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